Unit I Article Review
Using the CSU Online Library, locate an article that discusses the topic of business ethics. Topic ideas might include the role of ethics in the workplace, breach of ethics, the effect of internal and external forces on ethical compliance, global ethical considerations within a business or ethics and employees.
Note these are ideas; please expand within the parameters of ethical topics as they relate to business ethics.
Respond to the following questions:
1. Summarize the article and align it with the authors main point.
2. How does this article contribute to contemporary thinking about business ethics?
3. How can you apply information in this article to your field?
4. How did this article fit your ethical view?
Your response should be a minimum of 2 double-spaced pages not including the title and reference pages.
Referenced sources must have accompanying citations complying with APA guidelines. References should include at minimum 1) one of the required reading articles and 2) an additional scholarly reviewed article from the CSU Online Library.
Unit II Essay
Establishing a culture of sound business ethics within an organization is challenging, to say the least. Companies that market products that are not considered to be healthy for consumers have additional challenges. Using the CSU online library, research a company that markets unhealthy products. Examples might include tobacco or alcohol companies but these examples are not all-inclusive. Respond to the following questions.
1. Briefly describe the company and its product and the ethical dilemma associated with the production and distribution of its products.
2. Describe how the perception of the product differs within cultures both within the United States and globally.
3. How has this company handled the ethical implications of its product with a focus on social responsibility, integrity and business ethics?
4. Explain how leadership within the organization can instill a culture of ethics within the marketing department as they strive to advertise a product that is not healthy for the customer.
Your response should be a minimum of two double-spaced pages not including the title and reference pages. You are required to use at least one peer-reviewed source. Referenced sources must have accompanying citations complying with APA guidelines.
Your essay should be formatted in accordance with APA style. For step-by-step instructions for formatting a paper in APA style
Unit III Case Study
· Weight: 10% of course grade
· Grading Rubric
For this assignment, review the Nike case study, located at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M5uYCWVfuPQ.
Click here view the video transcript.
Once you have viewed the case scenario, respond to the following questions, with thorough explanations and well-supported rationale.
1. These workers state the “only thing they have is their work”. This statement suggests that without this work, they would have a lower standard of living. Should we inflict western values on this society? Bring in the concepts of social responsibility, integrity and other business ethics practices.
2. From Nike’s standpoint, is this a fair assessment of their ethical standards? Explain the some of the ethical issues that Nike is facing in the case.
3. Explain what Nike has done to improve this situation since this 2011 video. Include the use of codes of ethics and other ethical standards implemented within the organization.
4. Is your opinion of Nike any different now after viewing this video? Would this change your buying behavior with respect to Nike products?
Your response should be a minimum of two double-spaced pages. References should include your required reading plus one additional credible reference. All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying in-text citations, and cited per APA guidelines.
Your response should be formatted in accordance with APA style. For step-by-step instructions for formatting a paper in APA style
0:04: (background music)
0:10: (Jim Keady) At the age of 18,
0:12: I was just on track. Go to a good college, get a decent degree, do good and
0:20: youre going to get an entry-level job down at Wall Street.
0:22: Youre going to work real hard; youre going to be a broker; youre going to make tons of money; youre going to be retired, and
0:26: by a young age, youre going to have a house on the beach in New Jersey and a
0:29: couple of Mercedes. And a
0:30: trophy wife, and that will be the end of the game.
0:32: Im donemulti-millionairethats it!
0:38: I was playing professionally for the New Jersey Imperials;
0:41: I was playing the best soccer my life.
0:51: (background music)
1:03: I get offered
1:04: this coaching job by one of my teammates to go coach at Saint John’s University,
1:08: the NCAA Division 1 national champions; they are the best team in the country.
1:12: I was having a blast. I was loving coaching; I was loving playing.
1:16: I’m living in New York. I’m also studying stuff that I really enjoy.
1:20: Im digging into studying theology
1:22: for the first time in my life in a formal way.
1:26: I get online, I start doing searches about Nike and
1:29: sweatshops and labor practices. And what I found was,
1:33: if you wanted to pick a company that completely violates everything
1:37: the Catholic social teaching is about, Nike would be your perfect case study.
1:41: At the same time Im doing this research, Saint John’s University Athletic Department
1:45: starts to negotiate a $3.5 million endorsement deal with Nike
1:49: that would require me, as a coach, to wear and promote the products.
1:52: Saint John’s University is the largest Catholic institution in the country,
1:56: coupling itself with the largest sportswear company in the world,
2:01: and I said how can we, as such a public symbol of Catholicism,
2:07: do something that runs completely counter to our mission?
2:11: Were saying to the world, Look,
2:14: you should care about the poor, and we should fight against injustice, and we
2:18: should seek out the causes of poverty,
2:20: well unless youre getting some really good athletic equipment
2:23: and $3.5 million along with it. I mean you want to talk about just
2:27: hypocrisy manifested
2:31: in the real worldthis was it! (News broadcast- And you have the story at Saint John, 2:35: Jim Keady has caused a massive pile up. He is clearly an idealist.) I didnt go to Saint 2:40: John’s University
2:41: to work for Nike; I went there to coach
2:44: and to study theology. (News broadcast: Keady, a devout Catholic
2:48: protested, How does he reach the point where he thinks it’s immoral to wear the swoosh? 2:51: Because he’s coming at it from a background of faith and religion;
2:55: this isn’t about
2:56: just money or power or a job or anything. Think about this,
2:59: how many of us on a job that we really want
3:02: are prepared to get a memo from the boss saying stop doing this or you’re out,
3:06: and you keep doing it?) I was given an ultimatum by my head coach,
3:09: wear Nike and drop this issue or resign,
3:13: end of story. So, in June of 1998, I was constructively fired.
3:24: People were telling me, you dont know what you’re talking about; you know, those are great 3:27: jobs, and you can live like a king or queen on those wages, and those people are
3:30: really happy to have those jobs.
3:32: I want to go find out.
3:35: Doesn’t everybody just want to know the truth? So I wanted to know the truth
3:39: first hand. I wanted to see it. I wanted to smell it. I wanted to hold it in my hand.
3:49: I knew I was going to need other people,
3:50: Leslie was a natural match.
3:54: (Leslie Kretzu) Jim and I went to college together; we came together ultimately because
3:58: we share an interest in labor rights issues.
4:01: (Jim) I eventually met back up there a few years after school
4:05: through an email about sweatshops.
4:08: (Leslie) I really wanted to be working with these issues.
4:11: (Jim) I wrote to my buddy, and said who is this woman that’s writing you about this stuff? 4:15: And he said, she’s nuts like you; you should email her. She was actually in route
4:19: to go work with Mother Teresas sisters in India, and I sent her off this email.
4:23: Hey, Ive got this great idea; let’s go starve on Nikes wages in Indonesia.
4:26: (Leslie) And so hes like, I really need to go. (Jim) And she wrote me back,
4:29: sounds great. (Leslie) Let’s go!
4:37: (Jim) We plopped down in Tangerang, Indonesia, this industrial suburb outside of the
4:42: capital of Jakarta,
4:43: with the plans that, for the next month, we were going to live
4:46: as Nikes factory workers lived, which
4:49: meant that we were going to go live in a workers slum outside of the capital, 4:53: and we were going to live on the workers wages, a $1.25 a day,
4:57: for the next month. To try and come to a better understanding
5:01: of what it’s like for Nike factory workers 5:04: to make this kind of money and live under these conditions.
5:11: We lived in a 9 by 9 cement box.
5:15: It was over 100 degrees, 100% percent humidity, a small window, and certainly no air 5:20: conditioning.
5:21: (Leslie) No furniture, you slept on a very thin mat
5:24: on an uneven cement floor covered in shelf paper.
5:28: (Jim) The streets outside of your home
5:31: are lined by open sewers,
5:34: and what that means in the rainy season is you would have all that feces just
5:38: float up into the streets and into your house.
5:40: (Leslie) And every time that you go to the bathroom, it comes back out into the sewer for 5:44: everybody else to see and smell.
5:46: (Jim) You would have football size rats that would stampede over the ceiling at night 5:51: and come up through the toilet and look for stuff to eat in the house.
5:55: Or the fish size cock roaches that would crawl over you at night.
6:03: Im Jim. Just like anyone
6:09: around the world, you can’t just drop into someone’s life and be like,
6:12: hi we’re here; we want to live in your life, and tell us how much it sucks.
6:16: You had to build bonds of trust.
6:19: Jim, nice to meet you.
6:26: (Leslie) They treated us very politely, and it wasn’t until they saw
6:30: that we were committed in
6:33: the capacity of living on the wages that they’re forced to live on,
6:37: in the conditions that they are living, that they felt that they could
6:41: start to begin to trust us. You get to know them, and you hold their children, and you 6:46: eat with them, and you share stories with them; they become part of your family.
6:51: (Jim) We would go to different workers homes,
6:53: youve got like four women sleeping in like an 8 by 8 cement box and
6:59: all of their possessions are in there.
7:00: Like, everything is in this small area.
7:03: (Leslie) The workers would have to share a bathroom with five to ten
7:09: other families. The workers would have to share living
7:13: quarters, actually like a row 7:16: of shacks with hard-hit tin roofs.
7:19: All those families would share a laundry
7:23: corner and a kitchen facility.
7:26: And they would all share the same well to take the water out of.
7:35: (Jim) A $1.25 a day after youve paid for your rent, water, electricity, and any major transportation costs,
7:41: youre going to be left on average
7:42: with roughly 7,000 Rupiah per day. What the hell does that mean?
7:49: That’s going to buy you two simple meals of rice and vegetables,
7:52: a bag of peanuts, a bottle of iced tea, and some dish detergent.
7:58: And thats all you can get.
7:59: And that your reward?
8:02: (Leslie) Without a doubt, we found that out the first week that we were there, there’s no way that you can live,
8:07: on a $1.25 a day and maintain your human dignity.
8:11: It’s just not possible.
8:18: (Jim) I lost 25 pounds living on Nike’s wages in Indonesia.
8:22: I spent the month painfully hungry and
8:25: tired, like near the point of exhaustion most days.
8:28: (Leslie) I just felt my energy storage was just
8:31: depleted, and I just started going downhill fast, and I just started getting sick every day.
8:38: (Jim) And she got very sick one day; she had like
8:40: a fever of 104, and she’s got to deal with well,
8:44: I have a fever of 104; I can buy aspirin and like a little
8:47: drink box to get some vitamin C, but if I buy those two things
8:51: I don’t eat for the rest of the day.
8:59: (Leslie) I dont know what this is going to do, because were going to go home, and were going to say
9:07: this is not enough money, and no one is going to do a damn thing different.
9:15: (Jim) How do you feel like a human being?
9:18: How do you feel about your work or your gifts?
9:23: You know, for them, the workers that Ive talked to the last couple of days,
9:26: a number of them have said the only thing we have is our physical labor.
9:33: Because I just bought the smallest thing of shaving cream
9:36: and one razor that I might be able to use two or three times,
9:42: I have to cut out three meals this week.
10:08: (Leslie) They will be working overtime hours just to get by,
10:12: because they cant possibly get by on the wage that theyre paid
10:16: without working incredible amounts of overtime.
10:21: And when you’re working up to 15 hours a day, six to seven days a week
10:25: your 2-year-old child just
10:28: doesn’t see you, you know. They don’t get to see their children.
10:32: (Jim) The kids cant even go to school.
10:35: How are you going to break a cycle of poverty and have real economic development
10:39: if you have a whole lost generation of children that aren’t even
10:53: I’m walking down this dirt path into this village,
10:55: and I see this massive pile of scrap shoe rubber that I later learned came
11:00: from one of Nike’s factories.
11:02: And piles like that get dumped there all the time, and the end result of these
11:06: piles is that they get burned
11:08: in that village in the big open space where kids play.
11:11: And the burning fumes, I learned from the company that designs Nike shoe
11:16: will give off toxins and carcinogens.
11:20: Kids are paying the price, and they’re the ones with chest infections, and
11:23: they’re the ones that are going to develop cancer.
11:32: When we were in Indonesia, we made attempts
11:34: to get into a Nike factory because Nike claims on their website, we have nothing
11:39: to hide.
11:40: (Male voice) Im Mike.
11:41: (Nike employee) Hi, Mike.
11:42: (Male voice) How are you doing?
11:43: (Nike employee) Good,
11:44: We went over to Nikes corporate offices,
11:45: and Nike denied us that.
11:49: (Nike employee) Were unable to accommodate that request.
11:53: (Leslie) Nike headquarters in Beaverton, Oregon had faxed an info sheet out to all the
11:56: factories to be placed on the wall for all workers to see
12:00: that read, if you are approached by Jim Keady, Leslie Kretzu, or Mike Pierantozzi,
12:03: do not speak to them. (Jim) Theyre only to speak to management; there will
12:07: be severe consequences if you’re found talking to them.
12:11: (Leslie) And they know from their management how they’re supposed to act, and if they don’t, 12:14: there are some severe ramifications.
12:16: Anywhere from significant harassment to
12:19: death, and I mean this in a very literal sense.
12:27: Certainly, management of the factory didnt
12:30: want us to be there, and it was kinda frightening because several times we tried
12:34: to get into the factory.
12:35: (Jim) We werent out of the van for more than three minutes,
12:39: and there was security like surrounding us, and then the factory managers came out. What’s 12:44: going on?
12:45: Were outside a Nike shoe factory right now; security is kind of surrounding us.
12:50: (Leslie) Theyre like, What are you doing here?
12:53: Why are you here? It was frightening, you know,
12:56: becausewho knows?
13:02: (Mike) Security guy here was tracking us down.
13:05: (Jim) From that moment, we were tailed by factory security
13:09: the prey men for the local mafia.
13:13: The local mafia certainly works in conjunction with these factory bosses.
13:18: The factory bossessome of themare just brutal, ruthless,
13:22: hired muscle to keep workers in line. We met with one worker, Julianto.
13:26: He told us because he was union organizing, he was trying to form an
13:30: independent union.
13:31: (Leslie) He was threatened at gunpoint; he had his house ransacked,
13:36: he was given death threats, and he had to flee back to his home village
13:40: because he feared for his life.
13:46: This is literally a life and death issue, and this happens at all the factories.
13:50: (Jim) Every worker that we talk to,
13:54: there’s this struggle with this fear
13:57: this culture of fear that just permeates the air
14:01: that, yeah, they want to tell you the truth and try and fight for their rights,
14:06: but they also want the kids to have a father or a mother.
14:10: They’re dealing everyday with the threat of losing their lives for doing this kind
14:14: of work.
14:15: I mean, they showed tremendous courage in light of that.
14:20: We were able to meet with a woman by the name of Dita Sari who had been
14:24: organizing Nike and Reebok factory workers at the age of 23 and was illegally
14:29: jailed and put in prison and tortured.
14:31: (Dita Sari) On the 8th of July 1996, I was arrested by the army,
14:35: the local army, in East Jawa.
14:39: They kicked me and they used their fists and their sticks.
14:43: And they were told to hurt me and to torture me in front of the workers
14:46: to show them an example.
14:51: (Leslie) I think the majority of workers were saying look, we dont want
14:55: you to pull out the jobs; we want to work.
14:59: Wed like to work; we want to make the shoes. We were proud of what
15:04: we do,
15:04: but we don’t want to be exploited.
15:07: Why can’t you just let us meet our basic needs?
15:11: (Jim) Were talking about food, clothing, housing, health care, education,
15:15: being able to take care of your kids, and some modest savings.
15:19: That’s not a tall order.
15:22: Excuse me, do you guys know where the Nike campus is?
15:26: (Jogger) Yeah, you make a right on Walker, and youll see it on your southwest corner.
15:30: (Jim) Okay, thanks.
15:34: Okay, so were on Nikes campus right now; it’s a little bit different than the factories in Indonesia 15:38: just a tiny bit.
15:41: (Leslie) Hi, how are you?
15:42: (Phil Knight) Hi, good to see you.
15:44: (Jim) Listen, umm, I was hoping to set some time where we could talk.
15:50: Im really concerned about the workforce in Indonesia.
15:53: You know, I spent the summer living there, living with them, and living on the wages that are paid to factory workers.
15:57: (Phil Knight) Youre worried about that?
15:58: (Jim) Yeah.
16:00: (Phil Knight) Ok, why dont you call my secretary, and see what happens.
16:01: (Jim) I did. I called Lisa last week. I called Vada. I called Dusty. I called Brad Figel.
16:06: I called Amanda.
16:08: (Phil Knight) Youre going to have to talk to someone else; maybe you need to talk to Dusty Kidd. 16:10: (Jim) I mean, youre the guy the buck stops with, right?
16:13: (Phil Knight) yeah, it doesnt start with me though.
16:14: (Jim) No, but I mean, I dont know who else to talk to.
16:15: (Phil Knight) Try Dusty Kidd.
16:17: (Jim) He doesnt want to talk to me.
16:18: (Phil Knight) Well then, I guess you dont get through then.
16:20: (Jim) But, youre the man, I mean.
16:22: (Phil Knight) Thank you.
16:24: (Jim) Youre the man that needs to.
16:26: (Phil Knight) I appreciate your concern, but Im having lunch with a friend,
16:29: and weve talked about it, and youre..
16:30: (Jim) I apologize for interrupting your lunch. I mean, Ive come all the way from New Jersey to talk 16:33: to you about this.
16:34: (Phil Knight) Im not talking to you.
16:35: (Jim) Ive gotten stonewalled at every turn; you know, the workers have asked for me
16:40: that I try bringing you back to Indonesia to meet them in their homes not, not in the office in Jakarta.
16:49: (Phil Knight) Do you understand no? You just got a no. Im not going to talk to you about it.
16:56: (Jim) Phil Knight, the CEO of Nike,
16:58: or Michael Jordan or Tiger Woods or Mia Hamm or any of the other people that are
17:02: really making a lot of money because of the way that Nike does things
17:06: should care about these workers because they’re human beings.
17:16: (Leslie) When I see
17:17: people like Tiger Woods get a $100 million just for wearing the clothes,
17:21: were saying as a society, like this one individual because [he or she] plays golf well and
17:26: is worth more than 700,000 people.
17:41: (Jim) We made up these
17:42: wage charts and have them look down at it, and they look up and say,
17:47: Tiger Woods makes enough in a second
17:50: to buy me a house. Why?
17:54: I work hard for the company too.
18:00: What do you say to them?
18:01: Well, hey, that’s the system. Deal with it.
18:05: Suck it up; its capitalismsurvival of the fittest. I guess youre not the fittest.
18:13: Nike is in Indonesia for one reasoncheap labor.
18:17: (Leslie) Its an ideology of maximizing profit at all costs
18:21: to humanity and nature. And its this entire
18:24: vicious cycle that starts with the heads of
18:28: the corporations that want to make a great return on shareholders investment.
18:34: (Jim) Some people say, well, hey, that’s the way things are; thats the American way.
18:38: Its capitalism; that’s the American way. No, the American way is
18:41: democracy; that’s what our country was founded on.
18:44: A belief that all people are equalthat there should be a respect for
18:48: for democracy, for human rights, and for the protection of human lifethats what were about as Americans.
18:53: We spent the last year and a half traveling around the country, visiting 18:59: over a hundred schools, high schools, and universities
19:01: 15,000 students. So, how are you feeling about the turnout?
19:04: (Student 1) Im feeling pretty good about the turnout.
19:05: (Jim) What were you thinking about the turnout here? 19:10: (Student 2) Its great; this is the best possible turnout. 19:12: (Jim) And we try as best we can to
19:14: introduce them to these human beings.
19:17: And say, as students, as
19:20: high school athletes, college athletes, as consumers, youve got tremendous power. 19:25: And because we can’t fly them over to Indonesia, we can bring Indonesia to them. 19:30: And if we can give them that spark, even if it’s one or two
19:34: on that day, that’s going to multiply. And eventually,
19:38: well reach this critical mass, and we’ll have a great harvest. And the harvest will 19:42: be truth,
19:43: and justice, and fairness for all people.
19:50: Something’s wrong here, and we can fix it; its a necessity.
19:55: (Leslie) The tipping point is now.
19:59: (Jim) At this point in our history, we need
20:00: a story like this to be told.
20:05: (background music) Unit IV Essay
Ethics in business relationships include both the external and internal relationships that develop around the organization. For this assignment, you will focus on the internal relationships that develop inside the organization. Studies have indicated the more positive the environment within the organization, the more productive the employees.
Research one or a combination of these job-related topics found within organizations: job discrimination; sexual harassment; bullying or unsafe working conditions.
1. Briefly describe the issue.
2. Analyze the impact on overall morale, relationships within the organization and ultimately overall productivity levels.
3. Research a minimum of one company that was caught up in this type of issue.
4. What best practices might a company implement to avoid negative behavior within their organization?
5. How would you rate the ethical practices of the company that you chose (excellent, fair or poor)? Explain.
Your response should include an introduction, thesis statement, and a clear discussion of the questions/topics above. It should be a minimum of two double-spaced pages. You are required to use at least two credible references. All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations and be cited per APA guidelines.
You may find this presentation, Thesis Statements, a great resource for guidance in making reference citations: https://columbiasouthern.adobeconnect.com/csubasicthesisstatement/
Your essay response should be formatted in accordance with APA style. For step-by-step instructions for formatting a paper in APA style
Unit V Reflection Paper
Select a significant tragic event (either domestic or global) that has occurred during the last 50 years. The interactive PowerPoint in this unit provides some ideas of historical tragic events but understand that these are just ideas. After describing the event and the post-tragedy events, discuss the ethical aspects revolving around this incident. This may require some additional research to understand the ethical situations and the impact these had on affected people being able to move on with their lives.
1. Describe the actions of people and organizational leaders directly and indirectly involved with the tragedy. Specifically, address the ethical issues they faced.
2. What were some of the actions of local, state and federal personnel with respect to dealing with this tragedy?
3. Explain the strategies of organizations that attempted to assist with the clean-up after the tragic event. Describe several of the pressures that influenced their strategies. Distinguish between social responsibility, integrity and simple business ethics.
4. How has this event affected the ethical culture here in the United States? What other affect has it had on society as a whole?
Your response should be a minimum of two double-spaced pages. References should include, at minimum, one additional credible reference beyond the required reading. All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations, and cited per APA guidelines.
Unit VI Case Study
For this assignment, read the case study, The 1920 Farrow’s Bank failure: a case of managerial hubris. This case is located in the ABI/Inform Complete Database found in the CSU Online Library (see reference below).
Hollow, M. (2014). The 1920 farrow’s bank failure: A case of managerial hubris? Journal of Management History, 20(2), 164-178.
Thomas Farrow had been evaluated as having been inflicted by managerial hubris at the time of the bank’s collapse in 1920. With this in mind, address the following questions, with thorough explanations and well-supported rationale.
1. How did corporate culture, leadership, power and motivation affect Thomas’ level of managerial hubris?
2. Relate managerial hubris to ethical decision making and the overall impact on the business environment.
3. Explain the pressures associated with ethical decision making at Farrows Bank.
4. Evaluate whether the level of managerial hubris would have been decreased if Farrow Bank had a truly ethical business culture. Could this have affected the final outcome of Farrow Bank? Explain your position.
Your response should be a minimum of three double- spaced pages. References should include your required reading, case study reference plus a minimum of one additional credible reference. All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations, and cited per APA guidelines.
Unit VII Course Project
Code of Ethics
Begin by preparing of Code of Ethics for a fictional company which should include at minimum ten elements. Once you have compiled the Code of Ethics, respond to the following questions:
1. Why did you include each of the ten elements?
2. Why is a Code of Ethics an important part of every business from an employer standpoint?
3. Why is a Code of Ethics an important part of every business from an employee standpoint?
4. Once you have written the Code of Ethics, how would you implement to ensure compliance?
Your completed assignment should be a minimum of two double-spaced pages (one page for the Code of Ethics and one page for question responses). Please use a minimum of two credible sources from the CSU Online Library to support your reasoning. Referenced sources must have accompanying citations complying with APA guidelines.
Format your essay response in accordance with APA style. For step-by-step instructions for formatting a paper in APA style
Unit VIII PowerPoint Presentation
For this assignment, you will take on the role of a Vice President of a major organization. The CEO has assigned you the responsibility of educating the leaders within the organization of the importance of maintaining an ethical culture. The tone of the presentation should be of a persuasive nature as you will also be asking these leaders to take this initiative to each of their areas. As you compile this presentation, include the following:
1. Explain exactly what it means to maintain an ethical culture within the organization.
2. Analyze the role that culture plays in global business ethics.
3. Describe and persuade on the importance and rationale for maintaining an ethical culture within the entire organization. Think about methods that could be used to motivate towards ethical business practices.
4. Recommend tactical methods that might be used within each of their areas.
Your PowerPoint presentation should be 12-14 slides, not including the title slide and reference slide. All sources used must be referenced and paraphrased. Directly quoted material must have accompanying citations and be cited per APA guidelines.
Use of speaker notes is required as well. In the speaker notes, you will provide what you would say if you were actually giving the presentation to an audience. Please write your notes in complete sentences and adhere to typical grammar and/or punctuation rules.