Research Strategy

 3-4 pages 

Did you know that one department store chain has two forensics labs in the United States? One is in the western states and the other is located in the Northeast, and both locations process fingerprints and other forensics evidence. Did you know that one of the fast-food restaurant chains has a huge security department that is responsible for global security and an intelligence unit that tracks terrorism worldwide? Also, did you know that every professional sports team, most Fortune 500 companies, and amusement parks have security, quick response teams, and investigation teams? 

In regards to the Juvenile Justice sector;  develop a

 Thesis statement: This statement presents the problem or issue involving the juvenile justice system, and it should be clear and concise.   Hypothesis: This is a statement of prediction regarding the results of the problem or issue. Briefly identify your working solution to the problem. How might your working solution solve the problem? Be sure to note that your working solution will evolve through continued research and analysis.   Measurement and analysis approach: Define the key points that you will research about the problem, and explain how you will gather and analyze the data you find. Intend to incorporate information related to technology and crime statistics that apply to your issue.   Applicable resources: Identify 5 sources that you have found that are the most relevant and best support your purpose statement. List the sources, and then record the main idea as notes to use as part of your research later. Identify case studies, library, Web, and other scholarly resources.   Ethical standards: What are ethical and legal responsibilities to ensure that your final report will be of the highest ethical standards? 
cite all references using standard APA format


The Newsroom

The Newsroom

Please respond to EACH of the following discussion topics and submit them to the discussion forum as a single post. Your initial post should be 75-150 words in length. Then, make at least two thoughtful responses to your fellow students’ posts. If you haven’t recently, please review the Rules of Discussion.

In your discussion this week you have to write a short newscast. Select three (and only three) current news stories. Select the three stories that you think are the most important to our nation and society. Write an original headline for each story. Write no more than three sentences summarizing each story. Include the full html web address for each story.

*It is very important to only write on three stories and keep your summaries under three sentences as this simulates how challenging it is to explain very complicated new stories in very restricted time and keeping the attention of viewers.

Your initial post will look something like this:

Catchy Headline #1

Summary sentence 1. This is the second sentence. And finally a third sentence.

Catchy Headline #2

Summary sentence 1. This is the second sentence. And finally a third sentence.

Catchy Headline #3

Summary sentence 1. This is the second sentence. And finally a third sentence.


questions for the manager

2 pages. Please follow the instructions attached




Question 1 and 2 must be answered on separate pages with separate references.

Question 1

Review “Doing the Right Thing” in Chapter 5. Governmental Planning Takes Diverse Forms. A partial list of large-scale governmental planning activities would have to include at least the following:

 (1) planning for the conservation and use of natural resources

 (2) city planning,

 (3) planning for full employment,

 (4) planning for personal and family security

 (5) planning for agriculture

 (6) planning for the improvement of government organization. Provide one example from the case that addresses one of the five planning activities. Explain the lessons you discovered in this case that could create additional planning activities.

Question 1b

Review “Robin Hood” in Chapter 5. The story stated that the source of revenue (the rich) was dwindling because the rich were avoiding the forest. Robin considered increasing revenue by assessing a fixed transit tax. Recommend a contingency plan to increase revenue that would allow Robin Hood to stay true to his mission. Comment on the use and importance of contingency plans by public administrators. Provide an example to illustrate.

Question 2

Using the story about Robin Hood, discuss a cost-benefit and cost-effective analysis of the proposed assessment and contingency plan. Justify your rationale.

From the e-Activity, select one of the current events and discuss what method of rational decision making will better serve the public interest(s). Justify your response.


Go to Governing the States and Localities located at Select News and Topics. Select State or Local. Select and review one article


It was early in the spring of the second year of his insurrection against the High Sheriff of Nottingham that Robin Hood took a walk in Sherwood Forest. As he walked, he pondered the progress of the campaign, the disposition of his forces, his opposition’s moves, and the options that confronted him.

The revolt against the sheriff began as a personal crusade. It erupted out of Robin’s own conflict with the sheriff and his administration. Alone, however, Robin could accomplish little. He therefore sought allies, men with personal grievances and a deep sense of justice. Later he took all who came without asking too many questions. Strength, he believed, lay in numbers.

The first year was spent in forging the group into a disciplined band—a group united in enmity against the sheriff, willing to live outside the law as long as it took to accomplish their goals. The band was simply organized. Robin ruled supreme, making all important decisions. Specific tasks were delegated to his lieutenants. Will Scarlett was in charge of intelligence and scouting. His main job was to keep tabs on the movements of the sheriff’s men. He also collected information on the travel plans of rich merchants and abbots. Little John kept discipline among the men, and he saw to it that their archery was at the high peak that their profession demanded. Scarlett took care of the finances, paying shares of the take, bribing officials, converting loot to cash, and finding suitable hiding places for surplus gains. Finally, Much the Miller’s Son had the difficult task of provisioning the ever-increasing band.

The increasing size of the band was a source of satisfaction for Robin, but also a subject of much concern. The fame of his Merry Men was spreading, and new recruits were pouring in. Yet the number of men was beginning to exceed the food capacity of the forest. Game was becoming scarce, and food had to be transported by cart from outlying villages. The band had always camped together. But now what had been a small gathering had become a major encampment that could be detected miles away. Discipline was also becoming harder to enforce. “Why?” Robin reflected. “I don’t know half the men I run into these days.”

Although the band was getting larger, their main source of revenue was in decline. Travelers, especially the richer variety, began giving the forest a wide berth. This was costly and inconvenient to them, but it was preferable to having all their goods confiscated by Robin’s men. Robin was therefore considering changing his past policy to one of a fixed transit tax.

The idea was strongly resisted by his lieutenants who were proud of the Merry Men’s famous motto: “Rob from the rich and give to the poor.” The poor and the townspeople, they argued, were their main source of support and information. If they were antagonized by transit taxes, they would abandon the Merry Men to the mercy of the sheriff.

Robin wondered how long they could go on keeping to the ways and methods of their early days. The sheriff was growing stronger. He had the money, the men, and the facilities. In the long run he would wear Robin and his men down. Sooner or later, he would find their weaknesses and methodically destroy them. Robin felt that he must bring the campaign to a conclusion. The question was, How could this be achieved?

Robin knew that the chances of killing or capturing the sheriff were remote. Besides, killing the sheriff might satisfy his personal thirst for revenge but would not change the basic problem. It was also unlikely that the sheriff would be removed from office. He had powerful friends at court. On the other hand, Robin reflected, if the district was in a perpetual state of unrest, and the taxes went uncollected, the sheriff would fall out of favor. But on further thought, Robin reasoned, the sheriff might shrewdly use the unrest to obtain more reinforcements. The outcome depended on the mood of the regent Prince John. The Prince was known as vicious, volatile, and unpredictable. He was obsessed by his unpopularity among the people, who wanted the imprisoned King Richard back. He also lived in constant fear of the barons who were growing daily more hostile to his power. Several of these barons had set out to collect the ransom that would release King Richard the Lionheart from his jail in Austria. Robin had been discreetly asked to join, in return for future amnesty. It was a dangerous proposition. Provincial banditry was one thing, court intrigue another. Prince John was known for his vindictiveness. If the gamble failed he would personally see to it that all involved were crushed.

The sound of the supper horn startled Robin from his thoughts. There was the smell of roasting venison in the air. Nothing had been resolved or settled. Robin headed for camp promising himself that he would give these problems first priority after tomorrow’s operation.

What are Robin’s key problems? How are they related to each other? How did they emerge? What should Robin do in the short term and in the longer term?


Whoever fights monsters should see to it that in the process he does not become a monster.

Frederick Nietzsche

Leon Panetta was a surprise choice to lead the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), since his reputation rested primarily on his mastery of domestic policy—a mastery acquired as chairman of the House Budget Committee, as President Clinton’s budget director, and later as his chief of staff. Although some colleagues say that Panetta can be “principled to the point of rigidity,” it was more his reputation for rectitude and integrity than as his grasp of the intricacies of national security issues that got him the CIA job.

In May 2009, Panetta found himself preoccupied not with foreign enemies but with domestic critics, both conservative and liberal. From the right, former Vice President Dick Cheney accused the Barack Obama administration of “making the American people less safe” by banning the enhanced CIA interrogation of terrorism suspects that had been sanctioned by the George W. Bush administration. From the left, human rights activists and some Democratic members of Congress called for the establishment of some sort of inquiry—a special prosecutor, a congressional investigation, a truth commission—to determine whether the Bush administration lawyers who had argued that waterboarding and other harsh interrogation techniques could be employed in the aftermath of 9/11 should be prosecuted. These liberal groups were especially appalled that Panetta had advised Obama against such an inquiry.

As the director of the CIA, Panetta knew this was a sensitive issue for his agency. Critics believe that the agency had lost its moral bearings after 9/11. In 2007, when a confidential Red Cross report became public, no doubt remained that the agency had subjected terror suspects to prolonged physical and psychological cruelty. Officers shackled prisoners for weeks in contorted positions; chained them to the ceiling, wearing only diapers; exploited their phobias; and propelled them headfirst into walls. At least three prisoners died.

There was more bad news for the agency when President Obama released disturbing classified government documents describing how one prisoner was waterboarded 183 times in a month. For more than a century, the United States had prosecuted waterboarding as a serious crime, and a 10-year prison sentence was issued as recently as 1983. Indeed, the memos authorizing interrogators to torment prisoners clashed so glaringly with international and U.S. law that some of them were later withdrawn by lawyers in Bush’s own Justice Department. Torture itself is a felony, sometimes even treated as a capital crime. The Convention Against Torture, which America ratified in 1994, requires a government to prosecute all acts of torture; failure to do so is considered a breach of international law.

Although Panetta might oppose an inquiry, that did not mean he took torture lightly. One of his first acts as director was to ask the CIA’s inspector general to ensure that there was no one on the payroll who should be prosecuted for torture or related crimes. The inspector general assured him that no officer still at the agency had engaged in any action that went beyond the legal boundaries as they were understood during the Bush years. Panetta’s position was therefore consistent with that of President Obama, who had promised immunity from prosecution to any CIA officer who relied on the advice of legal counsel during the Bush years. For the longer term, Panetta was trying to set up a state-of-the-art interrogation unit, staffed by some of the best CIA, FBI, and military officers in the country and drawing on the advice of social scientists, linguists, and other scholars.

Panetta wondered if he had done enough. Should he resist or welcome an investigation of the CIA by the Attorney General that might lead to prosecution? Or should he resist or welcome the creation of an independent “truth commission” that could grant immunity to witnesses? As he pondered the pros and cons of some sort of inquiry, it became increasingly apparent how unappetizing his choices were.

Here are some of the arguments against any investigation: If Panetta did not argue against investigation, he would not be      seen within the agency as someone      people want to follow. Prosecution would be unfair to CIA officers who thought they were      abiding by the law. People      shouldn’t be punished for doing      what they took to be their duty. An investigation might look vindictive, as if the Obama administration was trying to      go after Cheney and Bush. Such a perception could have a serious political      downside, namely, the risk of      losing support from independents. Prosecution of officials would have a chilling effect on future      U.S. government officials. Few would be brave or foolhardy enough to put      forward daring proposals that one day could be judged illegal. Putting      things down in writing is a useful intellectual exercise and central to      good decision making. With the      threat of prosecution, serious memos on controversial matters would      increasingly become the exception      rather than the rule. Bottom      line: U.S. national security would be weakened. Investigation and prosecution would take time and focus away from      what the CIA, the country, and its elected and      appointed representatives thought important. Investigations and trials      would constitute an enormous distraction at a time when the United States faced a daunting      array of international problems. Investigation would undoubtedly result in the release of more memos and photos highly unflattering      to America’s image abroad. Such releases could spark an anti-American      backlash among allies and provide a superb recruiting tool for terrorist organizations. It is impossible to specify clearly a firm chain of causation.      Certainly, a series of actions at the      highest levels of government set the      conditions for and allowed abuse and torture, but there is no proof that      higher policymakers intended severe abuses to occur. And what about top      officials who knew about the      interrogation program but had no operational control over it? As one      former CIA official said, “You can’t throw out the entire agency.”

Advocates for investigation make the following points: Failure to investigate leaves the      impression that the Obama      administration is trying to cover up something. The U.S. citizenry needs a full      accounting, especially as it relates to the      health professionals. Released Justice Department memos contain numerous      references to CIA medical personnel participating in coercive      interrogation sessions. Were they the      designers, the legitimizers, and the implementers—or something else?      Their participation is possibly one of the      biggest medical ethics scandals in U.S. history. The argument that CIA officials      thought they were doing their      duty because of legal cover provided by the      Department of Justice will not stand. Many times courageous individuals      objected and walked away from policies that led to abuse and torture. As      one FBI assistant director told one special agent who had objected to the enhanced techniques, “We don’t do      that.” That agent was then pulled out of the      interrogation by the FBI director      Robert Mueller. At the Department      of Defense, the Army Field      Manual for Human Intelligence Collector Operations explicitly      prohibits torture or cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment in specific      terms (no waterboarding, for example). Some legal scholars think it would be hard not to do something. No      criminal charges have ever been brought against any CIA officer involved      in the torture program despite the fact that (as noted earlier) three      prisoners interrogated by agency personnel died as the result of this treatment. Yet the only Americans who had been prosecuted and sentenced      to imprisonment were 10 low-ranking servicepersons—those who took and      appeared in the Abu Ghraib      photographs. Former Vice President Cheney has said the United States must torture, because it’s effective.      That is, at best, an illogical argument: A crime is not a crime just      because it works. After all, terrorism can be quite effective. The argument is not only illogical but      also fallacious. According to interrogation experts in the FBI and the U.S. Army, people will say anything to stop their      torture. The fact that the independent commission would be politically      distracting isn’t a good argument for resisting it. Jeffrey Rosen writes:      “The Bush torture policies are the most serious violation of American      values since World War II internment of Japanese-Americans. A closed      Senate intelligence committee investigation would be inconsistent with the transparency Obama demanded when he      release the memos in the first place. At this point, only a      full truth commission-style investigation can allow the Bush lawyers to make clear that      they didn’t conspire to break the      law, while focusing public opprobrium on the      real architects and abettors of torture policies: namely, the policymakers …. An independent      commission would indeed be politically embarrassing… but at least it would      provide the accountability that the nation deserves.”


Research Essay Board Paper

Assessment task details:

You are required to choose one (1) of the following three contemporary ethics issues (Topics 1, 2 or 3) for analysis and produce a board briefing paper for tabling at the next meeting of the company’s board of directors.

Board members gain a great deal of information about the decisions they need to make through the papers they receive prior to a board meeting. Board papers are often prepared by non-board members. Papers cover a variety of functions, from providing general information to a call for action.  For example, section 180 of the Australian Corporations Act 2001 outlines that directors have a statutory duty of care to have read the board papers to be able to contribute effectively to board meetings.

In this briefing paper you will argue either in the affirmative (for) or the negative (against), providing a critical argument with evidence to support your argument.

Whilst the tone of this writing is slightly different to an essay, this briefing paper must have essay-like qualities. That is, you are required to formulate an argument, undertake research to locate academic references, and support your argument with theories covered in this course.

You are also required to table recommendations for the board to consider based on your analysis of the issue, including future action and possible barriers (these must be theory driven/evidence based).

To formulate your argument, you are required to undertake research to locate academic references using online databases (e.g. EBSCO, Proquest, Emerald, Science Direct etc). You must to use at least 12 academic references to support your argument.

Literature pointers will be provided on the Ethics & Governance Canvas site. Also, please read the Ethics & Governance – Guide to Assessment 1: Research Essay for details on essay writing, research and referencing requirements for this assessment.

Topic 1: Walmart and Foreign Corruption

Walmart has agreed to pay $US282 million (AUD $407 million) to settle US federal allegations of overseas corruption. Once upon a time it was possible to get away with having differing ethical stances in different jurisdictions.  In a globalised world is it ethical and still possible to practice ethical relativism? (Answer with reference to course literature, theory, concepts and research.)

I want to 2000 words and it should be Harvard format no plagiarism. 

I chose Walmart and Foreign Corruption Topic. I also attached all the articles and the course slides you may need it. 

the course name : Ethics & governance 




Please follow instructions for this Exam it is to be done exactly as it states below. Do not deviate!!

I have attached the questions for the Exam at the bottom of this post as well you may use my document to put your answers into it if you wish.

I have also attached at the bottom of this post an Article which is to be used to answer question 1 only.

1) Please bear in mind that respectable answers are at least 400 words each. Each answer is to be in your own words. No Plagiarism!!

2) Each Answer is to be 400  words No Exceptions!

3) Although you are allowed to use the Internet for research, you may not cut and paste any material into your answers, regardless of whether you cite them. Any violation of this rule will result in a zero on the exam.


critique essay


A synthesis and critique needs to answer the following questions, but organized in a thematic manner. This should not be a review of the textbook and lecture. This should not be a book report. First, what are the major points of the readings? What are they trying to explain and what are the explanations? While it is tempting to create a ledger of all that was said, recall that you only have three to five pages. Instead present the answers to the questions in the critique. The critique should answer the following: What are the major problems of the readings? What can be done to improve the situations raised in the readings/media? We will discuss the essays’ content on the first day and all graded critique essays will have comments left by me discussion how I graded your submitted essay.

Remember, that just like any other essay, you will have to cite your sources and integrate them into the discussion that appears in your critique essay. You may choose to support your position with as many sources as you like.  However, there must be at least one scholarly (peer – reviewed) source.



Quiz 1) When non-local species spread rapidly across large areas, they are called (1pts)   alien species.    invasive species.    exotic species.    native species.    endangered species.  2) The term biodiversity is a buzzword that incorporates the following:  I. genetic variation. II. the number of different species adjusted for relative abundance. III. variability of habitat. (1pts)   I    I, II, and III    I and III    II    I and II  3) One of the first acts of ecosystem conservation in American history can be seen through the (1pts)   creation of Pelican Island national wildlife refuge.    establishment of wilderness preservation areas.    creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.    establishment of Yellowstone National Park.    congress passing the multiple-use sustained-yield act.  4) Which of the following ecosystem types has only recently gained attention in the practice of conservation? (1pts)   Tropical rain forests    Grasslands and prairies    Sensitive marine habitats    Red wood forests    Wetlands  5) Including the mass extinction events that occurred prior to human existence, ecologists hypothesize that human activity could currently be the reason behind mass extinction number (1pts)   two.    three.    four.    five.    six.  6) The event that is defined by the last member of a species dying is termed (1pts)   extirpation.    endangerment.    extinction.    endemic.    exclusion.  7) A high degree of genetic diversity within a species would be important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT (1pts)   higher disease resistance.    greater protection against environmental change.    increased access to beneficial traits.    higher overall species diversity.    lower potential for inbreeding depression.  8) The IUCN labels species that are at high risk of extinction as (1pts)   threatened.    extinct.    extirpated.    species of special concern.    endemic.  9) The most severe effect resulting from loss of insect species globally would likely be (1pts)   an increase in disease vectors.    a reduction in water quality.    an increase in soil erosion.    a loss of aesthetic value.    a decline in food crop pollination.  10) All of the following are appropriate terms to describe a species that is present in an area where it does not normally occur EXCEPT (1pts)   endemic.    non-native.    invasive.    alien.    exotic.  11) River barriers such as dams are an example of which of the following factors that can lead to species endangerment? (1pts)   Exotic species introduction    Habitat alteration    Direct exploitation    Pollution    Commercial harvesting  12) Which of the following aquatic species provides a habitat for thousands of other species? (1pts)   Coral reefs    Bottlenose dolphins    Sea urchins    Manta rays    Clown fish  13) Creating patchy forested habitat by fragmentation increases the potential for edge effect, which may impact songbird populations by (1pts)   creating greater food availability.    reducing large mammalian predators.    increasing the potential for nest parasitism by species such as the brown-headed cowbird.    increasing the impact of UV light damage on nest sites.    increasing gene flow.  14) Alien species often pose a threat to native species because (1pts)   native species are less genetically diverse than alien species.    alien species often have no natural enemies in their new location.    both share similar parasite types.    the non-native species does not compete with native species.    native species refuse to mate with other native species.  15) Which of the following factors are important in promoting species endangerment and ultimately extinction?  I. Habitat destruction II. Exotic species introduction III. Increased tropospheric ozone (1pts)   I    I and III    I and II    III    I, II, and III  16) A pronounced example of humans overharvesting a species to extinction may be seen in the tragedy surrounding the (1pts)   passenger pigeon.    bison.    American alligator.    African elephant.    blue whale.  17) The primary reason for the overharvesting of species stems from (1pts)   market demand for goods associated with a species.    apathy toward species conservation.    religious doctrine that poses man as superior.    lack of legislation forbidding harvesting.    lack of food support from the United Nations.  18) The international legislation that establishes a “red list” for species susceptible to trade and thus endangerment is called the (1pts)   Endangered Species Act.    Lacey Act.    Marine Mammal Protection Act.    Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species.    National Environmental Protection Act.  19) In the United States, which agency is responsible for monitoring the import of threatened species as well as administering the Endangered Species Act? (1pts)   U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service    Environmental Protection Agency    U.S. Forest Service    The National Park Service    The Sierra Club  20) The United States legislation that is designed specifically to protect organisms such as manatees, polar bears, sea otters, and sea lions would be the (1pts)   Endangered Species Act.    National Marine Fisheries Act.    Marine Mammal Protection Act.    Lacey Act.    Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species.  21) According to the principles of island biogeography, which of the following factors increases island biodiversity?  I. Increased proximity to the mainland  II. Increased island size III. Increased amount of edge habitat (1pts)   I only    I and II    III only    I, II, and III    II and III  22) If habitat is in need of management to connect separate populations, the best way to promote gene flow is to implement (1pts)   catch-and-release programs.    captive breeding in zoos.    habitat corridors.    an increase in edge habitat.    introduction of exotic species.  23) An abrupt transition in habitat that brings two communities into contact with each other is called: (1pts)   edge habitat.    ecotone.    riparian zone.    corridor.    patch perimiter.  24) The phenomenon of forgiving the debt of economically underprivileged nations in exchange for preserving habitat for biodiversity is known as (1pts)   NAFTA.    the Montreal Protocol.    the Kyoto Treaty.    debt-for-nature swap.    conservation easement.  25) All of the following could be considered ecosystem services that may benefit a nation that is forgiving the debt of a developing nation in exchange for the preservation of biodiversity EXCEPT (1pts)   air purification.    population reduction.    food crop pollination.    medicinal benefits.    water purification.  26) The sixth mass extinction that many ecologists predict we are currently experiencing is different from the previous five mass extinctions in that (1pts)   the rate of extinction is much slower.    the diversity of organisms is significantly greater.    humans are present.    there is more habitat now than there was previously.    comets have a large influence on the current extinction.  27) Which of following groups of organisms represents the largest number of species listed on the Endangered Species Act? (1pts)   Insects    Fish    Mammals    Amphibians    Plants



Discuss the current processes, controversies, and ideas that dominate academic conversation in your subfield.(Public Policy) To determine the trajectory of this subfield of political science, pay careful attention to the discussion of research questions remaining within the subfield.


Leadership and Ethics

Needs turnitin report included.  Have also included previous assignment to reference. If any question on the assignment please ask before assuming. Thanks!