Topic : I need sleep! Stages of sleep, brain waves, and the neural mechanisms of sleep.

Topic : I  need sleep! Stages of sleep, brain waves, and the neural mechanisms of sleep. 


300+ words 


1.     Your post must be HIGHLY ORGANIZED, ACCURATE and THOROUGH.

2.    Reference sources that are used. See start here tab for APA help.

3.    NOTE: The goal is NOT to retype the text but to break down the concept and clarify.

You can quote the text but that portion must be clarified and explained by you.


Biology assignment




Assignment must be only one page NOT including the chart page and the reference page 



For this assignment, you will need to carefully consider information about 4 proposed conservation sites (this information is contained in a file linked in the HW). First, complete the comparison chart for the 4 proposed areas. Then, based on all the information you have, decide which forest area do you think should be conserved. Your writing assignment will explain which area you chose and your reasoning for choosing it, which should include:
Biological Considerations: Explain why you chose this area. Your explanation must include the following: how does the overall diversity of the area compare to the other areas. Note: you do not need to choose the most diverse area, but you must demonstrate that you have considered the diversity by discussing it.
how diverse are the primates in your area compared to the other proposed areas; how did you determine primate diversity (hint: you need to use the evolutionary tree). As with overall diversity, you do not need to choose the most diverse primate area to preserve.
other biological considerations: discuss at least 2 of the following:  the size of the area, the shape of the area,  the area’s endemic species, the presence of exotic (introduced) species Non-biological Considerations: other advantages to conserving this area, for example economic advantages.
Disadvantages to conserving other areas (optional)

Note: there is no one correct answer to this question, which means your explanation of the reasons is extremely important to the scoring of your assignment.

You must attach the completed comparison chart from the assignment file to your written assignment. Failure to do so will result in a major reduction in the content score.

Biology 101 Writing Assignment Guidelines

The written assignments are designed to provide opportunities for the student to find, evaluate, select, synthesize, organize, cite, and present information and arguments clearly and effectively for understanding scientific issues on personal, societal, and global levels.  This requirement is designed to help students achieve the University-wide Student Learning Outcomes (UPS 300.003) specifically to “communicate clearly, effectively, and persuasively, both orally and in writing”. (See: )

It is important that your assignments are thoroughly researched and clearly written.  You should define all your terms and be concise.  These assignments are designed to give you the experience of applying your knowledge of biology to a current controversy or topic of interest.  You will use the same sort of method that you will later use as an informed citizen and consumer when making decisions that involve biology. You should review the relevant chapters in your textbook, other course materials and use other sources to fill in missing information when necessary.

The structure of your paper Be sure to cover the points mentioned in each individual assignment and define all technical terms that you use in your own words.  Your paper needs to be written so the average person can understand it. You are encouraged to use first and/or second person in all of these writing assignments.  Your paper must be between 1/2 -1page (not including references).  The second page is only for the complete references of the material cited in your paper.  Any portion of your text on the second page will not be read or graded. Your paper should be double-spaced with one-inch margins, using 12 point Times New Roman font.  No cover page or heading is required (the body of your paper should begin on the first line of the first page). You are not allowed to include any quotes in your paper.  All of your writing must be original. You must properly paraphrase ideas from the literature, even if you provide an in-text citation. Information and ideas that are properly paraphrased must be accompanied by proper in-text citations in the body of your paper and a corresponding reference in American Psychological Association (APA) format. Note: only the references need to be in APA, other APA formatting items (such as a title page) should not be included. You need to review your paper for format, spelling, grammar and usage errors before you submit it, or you will lose points.  Please also review the grading rubric before submitting your paper to make sure that you have done everything you can to receive a good grade.

Outside Sources

Primary Sources:  You may find information in the “primary literature,” which is where the research was originally published.  You can find these articles by using CSUF’s on-line search engines, or by asking for the help of a CSUF librarian.  Examples of the primary literature include Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy, and Genetics.

Secondary Sources:  You may find relevant articles in recent newspapers, popular magazines, or popular science journals.  These are referred to as “secondary” sources, since they describe research that was published elsewhere.  Examples of these include The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Guardian, Time, Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist, and Science News.

Websites: If you choose to use a website, be aware that most websites are not peer-reviewed, and often present inaccurate information.  Examples of excellent websites include those of the National Academy of Science, the National Institute of Health, the Centers for Disease Control, and WebMD. If you are unsure of the appropriateness of a website, check with your instructor.  Alternatively, the CSUF library has an excellent guide to evaluating websites at under Guides for Undergraduates.  Wikipedia is not an appropriate website for research in a college course.

Guidelines for citing references

In-Text Citations are REQUIRED for any information included in your paper (everything that is not common knowledge or opinion)

In-text citations should be in APA format.  You can find a summary of APA guidelines for your citations at:

NOTE:  Any course materials used to complete these assignments must also be properly cited in your paper.

Reference Page is REQUIRED and should include all sources cited in text

Your references should be formatted using APA guidelines.  You can find a summary of APA guidelines for your reference page at:

The Purdue OWL: Citation Chart is a quick reference on how to format citations and references using different formats, including APA can be found at:


maQueens toes only

Derrick age 22

Derrick requests a routine physical.


Maria age 45

Maria complains of decreased focusing ability for near objects and headache.


Edward age 70

Edward complains of muscle weakness and blurred vision.

  . Color Blindness Test




No 2. Astigmatism Test




No 3. Visual Acuity Test


20 / 20

20 / 30

20 / 80 4. Knee Jerk Reflex Test




Abnormal 5. Pupillary Reflex Test







1. Why do doctors measure reflexes during a diagnostic exam?


23. Consider both the symptoms and results for each of the three patients to answer the following:

       Were there any abnormal test results?

       Using your text, the library and the internet to perform research explain what condition you think could explain the patient’s symptoms and results? Explain why you suspect this condition?

       What causes the condition you believe this patient may have?


Derrick is color blind

Color blindness is a usually a genetic (hereditary) condition (you are born with it). Red/green and blue colour blindness is usually passed down from your parents. The gene which is responsible for the condition is carried on the X chromosome and this is the reason why many more men are affected than women



Maria has an Astigmatism

Astigmatism is caused by an eye that is not completely round and occurs in nearly everybody to some degree. For vision problems due to astigmatism, glasses, contact lenses, and even vision correction procedures are all possible treatment options.


A person’s eye is naturally shaped like a sphere. Under normal circumstances, when light enters the eye, it refracts, or bends evenly, creating a clear view of the object. However, the eye of a person with astigmatism is shaped more like a football or the back of a spoon. For this person, when light enters the eye it is refracted more in one direction than the other, allowing only part of the object to be in focus at one time. Objects at any distance can appear blurry and wavy.



Edward s visual Acuity test 2o/80

Knee jerk reflex abnormal

Pupillary reflex test abnormal




       Lab – Neuromuscular?Resources


      ?By successfully completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:?Competency 6: Apply biological concepts to factors related to human health.

                        Explain the importance of a yearly eye exam.

                        Explain why doctors measure reflexes during the diagnostic exam.

                        Evaluate symptoms and results of patient 1.

                        Evaluate symptoms and results of patient 2.

                        Evaluate symptoms and results of patient 3.



      There are five labs within this course. The first lab, Neuromuscular Lab, is included in this unit. The other labs are in Units 5, 7, 8, and 10. Each lab corresponds to the topics learned in that particular unit, or in the unit prior to the lab.?To complete, you will open the labs by clicking Launch Lab and then following the instructions. Each lab is interactive and will ask you to walk through various situations that are used to better help you understand the particular topics discussed within the course.?Please note that at the end of each lab is an assessment. To complete the assessment, you will fill out the items requested within the lab and then download that document, or documents, to your computer and save it. You will be required to attach the documents to the assignment and then submit the assignment.?The Neuromuscular Lab focuses on three patients who are getting their yearly physical, including an eye exam and reflex test. It will have you go through the process of the eye exams from an optometrist’s point of view. Click Launch Lab to begin.?Make sure that you review the Lab – Neuromuscular Scoring Guide prior to submitting your document to ensure you have met all of the expectations for this assignment. Note that it is recommended to review the scoring guide prior to downloading your document, or documents, to your computer since all work is required to be completed within the lab.                        Toggle Drawer?



Discussion: Week 2


Review the information on cell (plasma) membrane structure. Conduct brief research on the origin of cell membrane formation and post a discussion on the following:

1. Basic physical and chemical structure of cell membranes,

2. What has been achieved as a result of cell membrane existence. In other words, what are the functions of the cell membrane,

3. The significance of cell membrane structure integrity and what might occur with the aging process as the structure deteriorates,

4. The advantage of understanding cell membrane structure and the development of anti-microbial agents (primarily antibiotics) in combating invading pathogens. Please note that the mechanism of antibiotics is to attack cell membranes or cell walls. Focus the discussion strictly on cell membranes



1) Describe the current status of international wildlife crime including the illegality of the underground wildlife trade. 
     How might forensic DNA applications be used to detect these crimes and to ideally deter future occurrences of 
     illegal poaching and smuggling operations? The research on this crime is extensive, you are encouraged to 
     perform external research exclusive of this week’s class reading assignments. 

2) Evaluate contemporary operational considerations in reference to DNA typing in wildlife investigations. 

3) Locate a contemporary legal case involving the use of DNA applications and their significance in the detection or 
    apprehension of criminals involved in the illegal wildlife trade. Briefly discuss the case, evaluate the specific DNA 
    application(s) used in the case, and discuss how the case was ultimately solved. Critique the law enforcement and 
    forensic response in reference to case solvability. 


lab report

Experiment 2: Concentration Gradients and Membrane Permeability

In this experiment, you will dialyze a solution of glucose and starch to observe: The directional movement of glucose and starch. The effect of a selectively permeable membrane on the diffusion of these molecules.

An indicator is a substance that changes color when in the presence of a specific substance. In this experiment, IKI will be used as an indicator to test for the presence of starch.



(5) 100 mL Beakers
10 mL 1% Glucose Solution, C6H12O6
4 Glucose Test Strips
(1) 100 mL Graduated Cylinder
4 mL 1% Iodine-Potassium Iodide, IKI
5 mL Liquid Starch, C6H10O5
3 Pipettes
4 Rubber Bands (Small; contain latex, handle with gloves on if allergic)  


Permanent Marker
* Stopwatch
* Water
* Scissors

*15.0 cm Dialysis Tubing

*You Must Provide
*Be sure to measure and cut only the length you need for this experiment. Reserve the remainder for later experiments.






Do not allow the open end of the dialysis tubing to fall into the beaker. If it does, remove the tube and rinse thoroughly with water before refilling it with the starch/glucose solution and replacing it in the beaker.


If you make a mistake, the dialysis tubing can be rinsed and used again.

Dialysis tubing must be soaked in water before you will be able to open it up to create the dialysis “bag.” Follow these directions for this experiment:

1.      Soak the tubing in a beaker of water for ten minutes.

2.     Place the dialysis tubing between your thumb and forefinger, and rub the two digits together in a shearing manner. This motion should open up the “tube” so that you can fill it with the different solutions.



1.     Measure and pour 50 mL of water into a 100 mL beaker using the 100 mL graduated cylinder. Cut a piece of dialysis tubing 15.0 cm long. Submerge the dialysis tubing in the water for at least ten minutes.


2.     Measure and pour 82 mL of water into a second 100 mL beaker using the 100 mL graduated cylinder. This is the beaker you will put the filled dialysis bag into in Step 9.

3.     Make the glucose/sucrose mixture. Use a graduated pipette to add 5 mL of glucose solution to a third 100 mL beaker and label it “dialysis bag solution.” Use a different graduated pipette to add 5 mL of starch solution to the same beaker. Mix by pipetting the solution up and down six times.

4.     Using the same pipette that you used to mix the dialysis bag solution, remove 2 mL of the dialysis bag solution and place it in a clean beaker. This sample will serve as your positive control for glucose and starch. 

a.     Dip one of the glucose test strips into the 2 mL of glucose/starch solution in the third beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the glucose test strip in Table 3. This is your positive control for glucose.

b.     Use a pipette to transfer approximately 0.5 mL of IKI into the 2 mL of glucose/starch solution into the third beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the glucose/starch solution in the beaker in Table 3. This is your positive control for starch.

5.     Using a clean pipette, remove 2 mL of water from the 82 mL of water you placed in a beaker in Step 2, and place it in a clean beaker. This sample will serve as your negative controls for glucose and starch.

a.     Dip one of the glucose test strips into the 2 mL of water in the beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the glucose test strip in Table 3. This is your negative control for glucose.

b.     Use a pipette to transfer approximately 0.5 mL of IKI into the 2 mL in the beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the water in the beaker      in Table 3. This is your negative control for starch.

Note : The color results of these controls determine the indicator reagent key. You must use these results to interpret the rest of your results.

6.     After at least ten minutes have passed, remove the dialysis tube and close one end by folding over 3.0 cm of one end (bottom). Fold it again and secure with a rubber band (use two rubber bands if necessary).

7.     Test to make sure the closed end of the dialysis tube will not allow solution to leak out. Dry off the outside of the dialysis tube bag with a cloth or paper towel. Then, add a small amount of water to the bag and examine the rubber band seal for leakage. Be sure to remove the water from the inside of the bag before continuing. Using the same pipette that was used to mix the solution in Step 3, transfer 8 mL of the dialysis bag solution to the prepared dialysis bag.

Figure 4: Step 9 reference.

9.     Place the filled dialysis bag in the 100 mL beaker filled with 80 mL of water, leaving the open end draped over the edge of the beaker as shown in Figure 4.

10. Allow the solution to sit for 60 minutes. Clean and dry all materials except the beaker holding the dialysis bag.

11. After the solution has diffused for 60 minutes, remove the dialysis bag from the beaker and empty the contents of the bag into a clean, dry beaker. Label the beaker “final dialysis bag solution.” 

12. Test the final dialysis bag solution for the presence of glucose by dipping one glucose test strip into the dialysis bag. Wait one minute before reading the results of the test strip. Record your results for the presence of glucose in Table 4.

13. Test for the presence of starch by adding 2 mL IKI. After one minute has passed, record the final color in Table 4.

14. Use a pipette to transfer 8 mL of the water in the beaker to a clean beaker. Test the beaker water for the presence of glucose by dipping one glucose test strip into the beaker. Wait one minute before reading the results of the test strip, and record the results in Table 4.

15. Test for the presence of starch by adding 2 mL of IKI to the beaker water. Record the final color of the beaker solution in Table 4.



Table 3: Indicator Reagent Data


Starch Positive
Control (Color)

Starch Negative
Control (Color)

Glucose Positive
Control (Color)

Glucose Negative
Control (Color)

Glucose Test Strip





IKI Solution






Table 4: Diffusion of Starch and Glucose Over Time


Dialysis Bag After 60 Minutes

Beaker Water After 60 Minutes

IKI Solution



Glucose Test Strip




Post-Lab Questions

1.     Why is it necessary to have positive and negative controls in this experiment?






2.     Draw a diagram of the experimental set-up. Use arrows to depict the movement of each substance in the dialysis bag and the beaker.





3.     Which substance(s) crossed the dialysis membrane? Support your response with data-based evidence.





4.     Which molecules remained inside of the dialysis bag?



5.     Did all of the molecules diffuse out of the bag into the beaker? Why or why not?






Experiment 1: Diffusion through a Liquid

In this experiment, you will observe the effect that different molecular weights have on the ability of dye to travel through a viscous medium. Materials

1 60 mL Corn Syrup Bottle, C12H22O11
Red and Blue Dye Solutions (Blue molecular weight = 793 g/mole; red molecular weight = 496 g/mole)
(1) 9 cm Petri Dish (top and bottom halves)  

* Stopwatch
* Clear Tape

*You Must Provide   



1.     Use clear tape to secure one-half of the petri dish (either the bottom or the top half) over a ruler. Make sure that you can read the measurement markings on the ruler through the petri dish. The dish should be positioned with the open end of the dish facing upwards.

Carefully fill the half of the petri dish with corn syrup until the entire surface is covered. Develop a hypothesis regarding which color dye you believe will diffuse faster across the corn syrup and why. Record this in the post-lab questions. Place a single drop of blue dye in the middle of the corn syrup. Note the position where the dye fell by reading the location of its outside edge on the ruler. Record the location of the outside edge of the dye (the distance it has traveled) every ten seconds for a total of two minutes. Record your data in Table 1 and use your results to perform the calculations in Table 2. Repeat the procedure using the red dye, the unused half of the petri dish, and fresh corn syrup.


Table 1: Rate of Diffusion in Corn Syrup

Time (sec)

Blue Dye

Red Dye

Time (sec)

Blue Dye

Red Dye












































Table 2: Speed of Diffusion of Different Molecular Weight Dyes


Molecular Weight

Total Distance
Traveled (mm)

Speed of Diffusion

Blue Dye




Red Dye




*Multiply the total distance diffused by 30 to get the hourly diffusion rate


Post-Lab Questions Record your hypothesis from Step 3 here. Be sure to validate your predictions with scientific reasoning.



  Which dye diffused the fastest?



  Does the rate of diffusion correspond with the molecular weight of the dye?





  Does the rate of diffusion change over time? Why or why not?




  Examine the graph below. Does it match the data you recorded in Table 2? Explain why, or why not. Submit your own plot if necessary.









Discussion 1 – Looking back on everything you have learned in this class, discuss what has been the most surprising or interesting lesson learned. Explain what made it so. Again, thinking about everything you have learned, discuss the one lesson learned that made you the most upset or angry. Explain why you reacted the way you did.

Discussion 2 – Predict what the major issue discussed in this course will be 20 years from now. Explain in detail why you believe it will be a major issue. Thinking about the subjects addressed in this course, predict what will be the focus of this course 10 years from now. Explain your rationale.


GMO Lab report (1 page) 6 hours ASAP

Write up the three operations: extraction, PCR and agarose gel.

 Your report should include the following: 

Name your test food: Cheetos chip

 List of contents of the wells 


Was your unknown a GMO food? Corn

What is your evidence that makes you draw that conclusion. 

In regards to the controls what does a band in these lanes tell you 1 3 5 Why do you not expect a band in lane 2


45 minutes Anthropology online exam PLEASE READ!!



Two 45 minutes online exam and one 60 minutes comprehensive final. One of the two 45 minutes exam is open now the other will be open later. I need to have full grade or at least 85%. I will let you do the second exam and the comprehensive final ONLY if I get high grade in the first exam result. The exam is 30 questions of multiple choices and short answers. I will send you the review file of the exam to give background about the exam.

I have attached the review for it 


Anthropology Discussion 6










Race is not a biologically meaningful way of classifying human beings but Western racial classifications continue to have significant consequences for the lived experiences of human beings. Why is it inaccurate to think of race as biology? What is race? 



Fuentes argues in “How not to be racist” that pretty much everyone is a little racist some of the time. Why does he argue this? What does he argue we can do to counter this?



PBS has a great website called RACE–The Power of an Illusion (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. . Take a look around the site and see what kind of stuff you learn. What is most interesting to you?



Forced sterilization of tens of thousands of women and men was carried out in the United States as government policy throughout much of the 20th century. Using the website, “Eugenics: Compulsory Sterilization in 50 American States” (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. , discuss the history of forced sterilization in the United States of America.



While human beings are one of the most genetically unified species on the planet, all humans share about 99.9% of our DNA, we do see that there can be interesting phenotypic variation between human populations. Since we know that “race” is not a meaningful way to understand that variation, what is the framework we do use to understand that variation? What explains why human populations vary in some phenotypic characteristics? What are some of the differences?



The film, The Human Family Tree, traces human migration over the last 60,000years or so by looking at the ancestry of residents of New York. What are some of the interesting things you learned watching this film?



In the first lecture, I asked you to consider what you think about when you hear the phrase “human nature”. How have your ideas about human nature changed over this course? What is human nature? Do you define it differently today than you did at the beginning of class?

What are you going to take with you from this course? What are the most significant things you have learned about understanding what it means to be human?