Final Applied Lab Project (1 credit Lab Component)
Addresses course outcomes 1-4:recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problemsmake observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanationsweigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific methoduse knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusions
This is the culminating lab assessment in BIOL 103. It is designed to assess your ability to apply the principles of the scientific method.
The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity
Design an experiment in which you will test the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity. Recall: enzymes are proteins! To complete this project, it may be useful for you to first review the Scientific Method Tutorial, information about pH and enzymes in the text book and course modules, Lab 1 (Introduction to Science) and Lab 4 (Enzymes). As you review Lab 4, you will be reminded that there are several factors that impact enzymatic activity: pH, temperature, and amount of reagent. It is OK to use the same enzyme/substrate/method as you did in lab 4 (but modify the treatment), or you can search on-line to find a different enzyme/substrate/method for measuring enzyme activity for your project (include all references).
As you design your experiment for this project, please remember that you are trying to examine how an acidic fluid will modify the outcome of an enzymatic reaction. To successfully complete this project, you will need to identify the question(s) being asked in your experiment and the hypothesis that you are testing. In your experimental design, you must clearly explain what you are doing. That means that you will need to identify the enzyme, the substrate, the acidic fluid used as treatment, the control treatment and the method of measuring enzyme activity, as well as explain your experimental protocol. You must also thoroughly explain how the acidic fluid impacted enzyme activity based on the results from your own experiment as well as knowledge of enzymes and pH from the text book, modules, lab manual and potentially additional information sources.
Hint: Keep in mind that the acid will change the environmental conditions of the experiment (for example, a low pH value could change the shape of the active site on the enzyme protein), without directly participating in the reaction.
You may need all or some of the following, depending on your experimental design:
Materials from your lab kit:pH paperhydrogen peroxide solution (you can purchase this at a pharmacy if you have used up the bottle that came with the lab kit)plastic beakers or cupsvinegaryeast (can be purchased at grocery store if more is needed)balloonsplastic bottlemarker for labeling of beakersCell phone/digital camera – pictures required
You may choose to use additional materials (different acidic fluids and/or different organisms and/or different substrate if you chose an enzyme other than catalase).
Include the following in your outline:Name of enzyme you will useName of organism (if applicable)The substrate and products in the chemical reactionMethod for measuring enzyme activityTreatment: acidic fluid(s), pH, length of exposure, how you will treat your samplesThe control(s) in the experimentHypothesisHow you will present your data (table and/or type of graph)Anything else you would like to get feedback on before you start your experiment
Write a lab report that includes the following:
1. Title page: descriptive title, your name, course name, semester
2. Introduction: general background information about enzymes and specific information about your chosen enzyme, the question(s) that you are asking and a clear hypothesis for your experiment (20 points).
3. Design an experiment. Provide a detailed description of the materials and methods used to conduct the experiment. Identify control and experimental samples, as well as independent and dependent variables. Also include the methods used for data collection and analysis (20 points).
4. Conduct the experiment and record your results. Take picture(s) of your results. What did you observe? Present your data in table and/or graph format. Remember to label everything and include the unit of measure with all numbers (20 points)
5. Use your knowledge of enzymes and pH to interpret and discuss your results. It may be necessary for you to refer to the text book and course modules, lab manual and/or use additional information resources. What effect does the acidic treatment have on enzyme activity? Did you get the expected results? Explain. (20 points)
6. State a specific and accurate conclusion. Is your hypothesis supported by the results? Looking back, how could you have improved your experiment? (10 points)
7. Include a list of references to all information sources used in APA format (5 points).
Watch the two videos listed below and answer the questions.
1. List three different visual aids that you could potentially use for each topic listed. Please describe why you think your selections would be effective. You can copy/paste example speech topics below to the Forum and place your examples for the following topics. To persuade my audience to donate blood To persuade my audience to fasten their seatbelts To persuade my audience to begin an exercise program To inform my audience about the different types of coins of the world To Inform my audience about the electoral college. To inform my audience about the different majors at Southern Miss
2. Then you will watch Stacey Kramer’s speech entitled “The Best Gift I Ever Survived” And Derek Sivers’ “How to Make a Movement” speech. Compare and contrast the ways in which the speakers use visual aids in their talks. What is the primary difference? Who do you think used visual aids more effectively?
Your response must be at least 500 words for the entire assignment.
the prinicple of common desended helps explain why?
Attached is an outline to assist with the paper.A+ paper needed, NO PLAGIRISM, APA FORMAT 3-4 “content” pages with an introduction, body and conclusion and a reference page
References for paper:
How can gene mutations affect health and development? – Genetics Home Reference. (April). Retrieved March 14, 2017, from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/mutationsanddisorders/mutationscausedisease
How do genes impact health and disease? (n.d.). Retrieved March 19, 2017, from http://www.genesinlife.org/genes-your-health/how-do-genes-impact-health-and-disease
University of California – Los Angeles. (2010, February 20). How genes interact with their environment to cause disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 19, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100218125156.htm
Mutations and Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved March 19, 2017, from http://genetics.thetech.org/about-genetics/mutations-and-disease
1. Backward effects of left-sided heart failure include:
A. Pulmonary congestion
B. Jugular vein distention
C. Dependent edema in the legs
D. Bounding pulses
2. In performing a physical assessment, the nurse notes the patient has a barrel configuration to the chest. This is a consequence of:
A. Reduced intrapleural pressures
B. Bronchial airway expansion
C. Increased vital capacity
D. Increased residual lung volume
3. Ausculation of the chest reveals bilateral fine crackles in the bases bilaterally, indicating:
A. Right-sided heart failure
B. Left-sided heart failure
D. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
4. The signs and symptoms of anemia are all related to what common pathophysiologic feature of the condition?
A. Increased oxygen consumption by tissues
B. Decreased blood oxygen content
D. A shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
5. In addition to hypertension, preeclampsia is characterized by:
A. Nausea and vomiting
B. Fatigue and lower back pain
C. Protein in the urine and edema
D. Retinal changes and rates in the lungs
6. Common manifestations of bacterial pneumonia include all of the following except:
B. Productive Cough
7. Closed drainage systems work to re-expand a lung after pneumothorax by:
A. Re-establishing the normal negative intrapleural pressure.
B. Creating a positive pressure in the pleural space
C. Removing excess fluid from the pleural space so that there is room for lung expansion.
D. Pulling oxygen into distal air sacs to re-expand lung tissue
8. Patients with chronic renal failure usually exhibit:
9. The diet of a patient in end-stage kidney disease is restricted in all of the following except:
10. Which of the following is true of the biological functions of progesterone?
A. Progesterone is the most important hormone associated with pregnancy.
B. Progesterone directs male sexual characteristics.
C. Levels of progesterone increases if the egg is not fertilized.
D. Levels of progesterone remain stable if the egg is not fertilized.
11. Which of the following is true of the biological functions of testosterone?
A. Testosterone is not secreted by the ovaries.
B. Testosterone is needed for development of female secondary sexual characteristics.
C. Testosterone stimulates ovulation.
D. Testosterone is needed for development of male secondary sexual characteristics.
12. Which of the following is true of the biological functions of estrone?
A. Estrone is required for proper development of male secondary sexual characteristics.
B. Level of estrogen degreases if the egg is not fertilized.
C. Estrone is required for proper development of female secondary sexual
D. Estrone affects only the reproductive organs.
13. What is the function of hemoglobin?
A. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen to the cells of the body.
B. Hemoglobin is a lipid in red blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen to the cells of the body.
C. Hemoglobin is a protein in white blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen to the cells of the body.
D. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that is not responsible for carrying carbon dioxide to the cells of the body.
14. Why is heat an effective means of sterilization?
A. Heat is an effective means of sterilization because it destroys the proteins of microbial lifeforms, including fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
B. Heat is an effective means of sterilization because it destroys the proteins of anaerobic microbial lifeforms, including fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
C. Heat is an effective means of sterilization because it destroys the lipids of microbial lifeforms, including fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
D. Both (B) and (C).
15. List the enzymes whose levels are elevated in the blood serum following an MI.
A. CPK, LDH, AST, and SGOT
B. LDH, AST, and SGOT
C. CRE, AST, and ALT
D. None of the above
16. What is the physiological function of gluconeogenesis?
A. Gluconeogenesis is production of glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules in times when blood glucose levels are low. This ensures proper function of brain and red blood cells, which only use glucose as fuel.
B. Gluconeogenesis is production of glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules in times when blood glucose levels are high. This ensures proper function of brain and white blood cells, which only use glucose as fuel.
C. Gluconeogenesis is production of glucose from carbohydrate molecules in times when blood glucose levels are low. This ensures proper function of brain and red blood cells, which only use glucose as fuel.
D. None of the above
17. What effect does glycogen metabolism have on glucose levels?
A. Glycogen metabolism traps glucose within liver cells and increases storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. These processes decrease blood glucose levels.
B. Glycogen metabolism traps glucose within liver cells and increases storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. These processes increase blood glucose levels.
C. Glycogen metabolism releases glucose within liver cells and increases storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. These processes decrease blood glucose levels.
D. None of the above
18. Carbon monoxide binds tightly to the heme groups of hemoglobin and myoglobin. How does this affinity reflect the toxicity of carbon monoxide?
A. Since carbon monoxide binds the heme groups of hemoglobin, it is easily removed or replaced by oxygen. As a result, the effects of oxygen enhancement result in what divers call the bends.
B. Because carbon monoxide binds the heme groups of hemoglobin, it is easily removed or replaced by oxygen. As a result, the effects of oxygen deprivation result in suffocation.
C. Because carbon monoxide binds tightly to the heme groups of hemoglobin, it is not easily removed or replaced by oxygen. As a result, the effects of oxygen deprivation result in suffocation.
D. None of the above
19. Which of the following may be a reason to order an ABG on a patient?
A. The patient suddenly develops shortness of breath
B. An asthmatic is starting to show signs of tiring
C. A diabetic has developed Kussmauls respirations
D. All of the above
20. How do sulfa drugs selectively kill bacteria while causing no harm to humans?
A. Folic acid is a vitamin required for the synthesis of a coenzyme needed to make the amino acid methionine and the purine and pyrimidine nitrogenious bases for DNA and RNA and folic acid is produced by humans.
B. Sulfa drug binds to the enzyme, no product is formed, folic acid is made and the biosynthesis of methionine and nitrogenous bases increases.
C. Humans are not harmed because they do not synthesize their own folic acid. It is obtained in the diet.
D. None of the above
21. What occurs when glycogen metabolism is stimulated by insulin?
A. Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase, the first enzyme in glycogen synthesis.
B. Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase, the first enzyme in glycogen synthesis. It also stimulates removal of glucose from the bloodstream into cells and phosphorylation of glucose by the enzyme glucokinase.
C. Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase, the first enzyme in glycogen synthesis. It also stimulates uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells and phosphorylation of glucose by the enzyme glucokinase.
D. All of the above
22. What is the medical application of cortisone? Cortisone is used to treat:
A. Rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, and a variety of skin conditions.
B. Kidney disease, high blood pressure, and osteoporosis.
C. Muscle disorders, tuberculosis, and thyroid disorder.
D. All of the above
23. Oxygen saturation is likely to be lowest when an asthmatic with a diagnosis of pneumonia is positioned:
A. In a high Fowler position
B. Lying on the left side
C. Lying on the right side
D. Lying supine with the head of the bed flat
24. Laboratory test results indicative of thrombocytopenia, in addition to a low platelet count, would be:
A. Increased PT
B. Prolonged bleeding time and poor clot retraction.
C. Increased aPTT
D. Decreased RBC count.
25. The purposes of epinephrine injection include all of the following except:
A. Stabilizing mast cell membranes.
B. Relaxing bronchial smooth muscle.
C. Supporting arterial blood pressure.
D. Blocking histamine receptors.
26. Therapeutic interventions focused on increasing the oxygen supplied to the heart and decreasing the hearts demand for oxygen include:
A. Antiplatelet drugs
C. Morphine sulphate
D. Thrombolytic drugs
27. An intervention that would contribute toward the healing of a peptic ulcer is:
A. Steroid administration
B. Blocking or neutralizing of acid secretion
C. Surgical removal of the ulcer
D. Intravenous nutritional support
28. Aspirin and NSAIDs are causative factors for the development of peptic ulcer disease because they:
A. Increase acid secretion
B. Allow proliferation of H. pylori
C. Damage the mucosal barrier
D. Alter platelet aggregation
29. Your patient is interested in trying medication to improve low mood/depression. All of the following medications might be appropriate except:
A. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
C. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
3 labs assignments needed
“Population and Individual Health Measures and Healthcare Costs in the United States” Please respond to the following:
From the first e-Activity, determine the most commonly used population and individual measures used in providing healthcare today. Examine the primary impact that these measures exert on the choices that consumers make in order to address their own healthcare needs. Justify your response.From the second e-Activity, compare the magnitude of healthcare costs in the United States to that of other developed countries. Analyze at least three (3) differences that you believe exist between the decisions that U.S. consumers and the consumers in other developed countries make regarding healthcare. Provide a rationale for your response.
Make a list of all the haploid forms of the plant.
Make a list of all the diploid forms of the plant.
Has to be at least 3 pages